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What are Pests?

Pest is a destructive insects or other animals that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc.

Pest include:-


Ants are a group of insects that includes black ants, red ants, wood ants and ‘flying ants’.

Ants, along with bees and wasps, form the insect group called Hymenoptera. They are recognised by their 3 fairly distinct body parts and often by the absence of wings. The most familiar are the few species that occasionally invade our kitchens and store cupboards in search of suitable food.

The most frequent visitor is the common black ant, Lasius niger, but other non native species are also becoming more widespread within homes. The Pharaohs ants and Argentine ants are examples.

All UK species live in complex colonies. Their annual swarming event, which produces myriads of winged queens and males, usually in August and September, often causes unnecessary concern.
Ants are beneficial in controlling numbers of other invertebrates and they also play a vital role improving and conditioning the soil.


(Solenopsis Invicta)


(Componotus Spp.)


(Monomorium Pharaonis)


(Ochetellus Glaber)


FIRE ANT (Solenopsis Invicta)


Color Red imported fire ant, black imported fire ant, tropical fire ant, and the mature southern fire ant all have painful stings.
Workers Many sizes.
Food facts Eats almost any plant or animal matter. Prefers high-protein foods.



Nesting Usually build mounds outdoors in sunny areas and are very aggressive. Colonies can grow to hundreds of thousands.
Location Throughout southern states.

CARPENTER ANT (Componotus Spp.)


Color Many varieties of different colors – tan, red, black.
Workers Many sizes.
Food facts Feeds on insects, insect secretions during the summer. Often invade structures in spring and fall looking for other food sources. Likes sweets.


Nesting Carpenters hollow out dead, moist wood in trees, firewood and fence posts to build nests, but they don’t eat wood. Inside, they build colonies in wall voids, foam insulation, eaves, and crawlspaces. Carpenter ants forage at night during summer months.
Location Throughout the United States.

PHAROAH ANT (Monomorium Pharaonis)


Color Yellow with a reddish abdomen.
Workers One size.
Food facts Likes fats and oils.



Nesting Typically builds nests in wood, wall voids, baseboards, etc. Colonies are quite large, with many queens. They prefer warm humid areas near food and water.
Location Throughout the United States, most commonly in southern states. In northern states, species will nest in heated buildings. Common hospital pest.

BLACK HOUSE ANT (Ochetellus Glaber)


Color Intensely-black
Workers Many sizes (Approximately 2.5 – 3 mm)
Food facts Attracted to sweet foods but also eat honeydew which is excreted from sap-sucking insects, as a result they are known to tent to aphids and bugs on domestic plants. They are omnivorous, feeding on insects and worms, as well as vegetation, such as small seeds.



Nesting Black house ants usually nest under stones or dry logs. The species can commonly be found in gardens. They are often a pest of domestic environments and will build their nest in cracks or gaps, beside pathways. They also generally enter the home in search of food. Like other ant species, they will nest underground and also in voids, for e.g. roof voids or wall cavities.
Locations An Australasian native, they are found in rural and urban areas and are very prevalent in Japan and Australia.



Color Black.
Workers One size, very small, similar to pharaoh ant.
Food facts Likes sweets, fats, oils.



Nesting May build outdoor colonies under rocks, logs, debris, and in landscape mulch.
Locations Throughout the United States, but most often in the East. One of the more common house-infesting ants. They nest in wall voids, under carpets, in woodwork, decaying wood, and masonry. Forages to indoor food sources along baseboards and carpet edges.

Bed Bug


(Cimex Lectularius)

BED BUG (Cimex Lectularius)


Bed Bugs like to hide in small cracks and crevices close to a human environment. They can be found behind baseboards, wallpaper, upholstery, and in furniture crevices. Beg bugs are also known to survive in temporary or alternative habitats, such as backpacks and under the seats in cars, busses and trains.

  • Vacuum suitcases after returning from a vacation.
  • Check your bedsheets for tell-tale blood spots.
  • Consider bringing a large plastic trashbag to keep your suitcase in during hotel stays.
  • Carry a small flashlight to assist you with quick visual inspections.
  • Never bring second-hand furniture, especially mattresses and box springs, into a home without thoroughly examining for signs of a bed bug infestation. You might consider having a pest control professional inspect the furniture as it is difficult to detect an infestation if you are untrained.
  • Regularly inspect areas where pets sleep for signs of bed bugs.
  • Bed bugs are elusive creatures, so it is imperative to seek professional pest control to address an infestation.


Cats near the factory play around and causes hygiene problems. As we know, cat fleas that stick on these stray cats’ body cause a big hygiene problem to the factory.


The cockroach is more than just a creepy nuisance pest that can survive freezing temperatures and a week without its head. This hearty creature can pose serious health risks to humans if it finds a way indoors. In fact, all types of cockroaches pick up germs on the spines of their legs as they crawl through decaying matter, which may be transferred to humans through food contamination. This can lead to illnesses such as E. coli and Salmonella.

In addition, cockroaches are linked to increased asthma and allergy attacks as their droppings, saliva and shed skin contain potent allergens known to trigger allergic reactions and exacerbate asthma symptoms, especially in children.

To remain safe and healthy from different types of cockroaches, pest control and management is key. However, with approximately 4,000 living species of cockroaches in the world, and about 70 species found in the United States, it’s inevitable that some cockroaches will find a way inside homes. As a result, it’s important to pay close attention for signs of an infestation and take action if this pest is found.


(Periplaneta Americana)


(Blattella Germanica)


(Blatta Orientalis)


(Supella Longipalpa)

AMERICAN COCKROACH (Periplaneta Americana)


  • American cockroaches are reddish brown with a yellowish figure 8 pattern on the back of their head.
  • Size 2 inches in length
  • Adult females carry the egg cases around for about 6 days and then cement them to a protected surface where they incubate for about 2 months or longer.
  • The egg cases, which are about 3/8 inch long, are brown when laid but turn black in 1 to 2 days.
  • Each egg capsule contains about 12 young; a female and her offspring can produce over 800 cockroaches in one year.



The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, prefers warm and humid environments, usually with temperatures in excess of 82°F. Under the right conditions, they readily live outdoors and are common pests in zoos and animal-rearing facilities. They are also common in sewers, steam tunnels, and masonry storm drains. Occasionally they forage from sewers and other areas into the ground floor of buildings. American cockroaches are often found in sewers and basements, particularly around pipes and drains.



To control American cockroaches, it is important to do a thorough inspection. A cockroach survey (trapping) is sometimes necessary to determine the extent of an infestation, as even a thorough inspection does not always reveal all cockroach harborages or foraging areas.

Modifying the interior environment—removing food, moisture, and harborages available to cockroaches—is the first step in treatment. Eliminating cockroach harborages involves caulking in closets and cabinets, caulking under the sink, etc., or making similar structural repairs in the kitchen, bathroom, and other areas of the house. To prevent the insects from establishing a breeding population, clean up all spilled food materials, including crumbs on the floor. Do not leave dirty dishes overnight.

GERMAN COCKROACH (Blattella Germanica)


  • German cockroaches are light brown to tan with two dark stripes located on their backs.
  • They are oval shaped with six legs and antennae. Size 0.5 inch in length.
  • The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is the most common indoor species, especially in multiple-family dwellings.
  • This species reproduces the fastest of the common pest cockroaches: a single female and her offspring can produce over 30,000 individuals in a year, but many succumb to cannibalism and other population pressures. Egg laying occurs more frequently during warm weather. The female carries around a light tan egg case (about 1/4 inch long) until 1 to 2 days before it hatches, when she drops it. Sometimes the egg case hatches while it is still being carried by the female. Each egg case contains about 30 young, and a female may produce a new egg case every few weeks.



German cockroaches can be found throughout structures but show a preference for warm and humid places. They are usually found in kitchens and secondarily in bathrooms, but infestations often occur in rooms where people eat and drink.



To control German cockroaches, it is important to do a thorough inspection. Whenever possible, place survey traps either against a wall or in a corner of the floor, a shelf, or a drawer, or under equipment and counters.

A key factor in prevention is sanitation. Clean up all spilled foods, including crumbs on the floor. Do not leave dirty dishes overnight. Store items such as cereal, crackers, cookies, flour, sugar, and bread in airtight sealed containers. Empty garbage each evening into a sturdy container with a tightly fitted lid. Structural modifications such as caulking holes in walls where pipes pass through are necessary in the kitchen, bathroom, and other areas of the house in order to control German cockroaches.

ORIENTAL COCKROACH (Blatta Orientalis)


  • Oriental Cockroaches are large very dark colored and shiny.
  • 1.25 inches; almost black; male, wings are shorter than body; female, wings are rudimentary
  • At night, oriental cockroaches may migrate into buildings in search of food. They usually remain on the ground floor of buildings and move more slowly than the other species.
  • Oriental cockroaches do not fly and are unable to climb smooth vertical surfaces; consequently they are commonly found trapped in porcelain sinks or tubs. Females deposit dark red-brown egg cases, which are about 3/8 inch long, in debris or food located in sheltered places.
  • Each female and her offspring can produce nearly 200 cockroaches in one year. Development from a newly emerged nymph to adult can take from 1 to 2 years or more.



Oriental cockroaches are often found in sewers and will enter structures through drains. They find indoor harborage in basements and crawl spaces. They can also be found in leaf piles and firewood outdoors.
The oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, is sometimes referred to as a water bug or black beetle. It lives in dark, damp places like indoor and outdoor drains, water control boxes, woodpiles, basements, garages, trash cans, and damp areas under houses. It is most likely to occur in single-family dwellings that are surrounded by vegetation. It is also common in ivy, ground cover, and outside locations where people feed pets. Oriental roaches prefer cooler temperatures than the other species do, and populations of this species often build to large numbers in masonry enclosures such as water meter boxes.



To control Oriental cockroaches, it is important to do a thorough inspection. A cockroach survey (trapping) is sometimes necessary to determine the extent of an infestation, because even a thorough inspection will not reveal all cockroach harborages or areas where they forage most actively at night. Modifying the interior environment—removing food, moisture, and harborages for cockroaches—is the first step in treatment. Eliminating cockroach harborages involves caulking in closets and cabinets, caulking under the sink, etc., or making similar structural repairs in the kitchen, bathroom, and other areas of the house. The research has shown that these cockroaches frequently move into the home along plumbing (e.g., up through the floor from underneath the crawl space) and under door or window jams. The use of screening, caulking and similar items may be useful in tightening the exterior to deter entry by the cockroaches.



  • Brownbanded cockroaches are brown with pronounced banding across their wings.
  • 0.5 inch; males are golden tan; females are darker brown; both have light-colored bands on abdomen, wings, and sides of pronotum.
  • The brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, is not as common as the German cockroach in California and accounts for only about 1% of all indoor infestations.
  • Brownbanded cockroaches prefer starchy food (e.g., glue on stamps and envelopes), are often found in offices and other places where paper is stored, and are more common in apartments or homes that are not air conditioned.
  • Adult males sometimes fly when disturbed, but females do not fly. Females glue light brown egg cases, which are about 1/4 inch long, to ceilings, beneath furniture, or in closets or other dark places where eggs incubate for several weeks before hatching.
  • Each female and her offspring are capable of producing over 600 cockroaches in one year.



Within a room, brownbanded cockroaches tend to prefer warmer, drier; preferring temperatures of about 80°F, about 5° to 10°F warmer than what German cockroaches prefer and higher locations than any of the other urban pest roaches. They are often found in upper cabinets or in rooms other than the kitchens or bathrooms. This species often hides its egg cases in or under furniture.

This species seeks out areas that are very warm most of the time, favorite locations include near the warm electrical components of appliances such as radios, televisions, and refrigerators.

They also infest animal-rearing facilities, kitchens, and hospitals.



To control brownbanded cockroaches, it is important to do a thorough inspection, or survey. Cockroach surveys involve placing sticky traps at strategic locations within the building. Whenever possible, place survey traps either against a wall or in a corner of the floor, a shelf, or a drawer. One of the key factors is sanitation. Clean up spilled foods on the floor. Do not leave dirty dishes overnight. Store items such as cereal, crackers, and cookies in airtight containers. Empty garbage each evening into a sturdy container with a tight-fitting lid.

Brown-banded cockroaches can conceal themselves in many places that are inaccessible to larger species. Making structural modifications such as caulking (in cracks, crevices; around ducts, molding, etc.) is necessary in bedrooms, bathrooms, dining rooms, and other areas of the house.


The most common observed stage of a fly is the winged adult. The adult fly mates, lays eggs in a breeding medium that will provide sufficient food for the immature stage – a pale, legless maggot. The breeding site is nearly always moist and surrounds the soft-bodied maggots. When maggots are full grown, they stop feeding and usually wander from the breeding site in search of a place to pupate. After pupation, they emerge as an adult fly. In warm weather, flies complete their development (egg-larva-pupa-adult) in an incredibly short period, 7-14 days, and produce numerous generations during a typical season.







Each female fly can lay approximately 500 eggs in several batches of about 75 to 150. The eggs are white and are about 1.2 mm in length. Within a day, larvae (maggots) hatch from the eggs; they live and feed in (usually dead and decaying) organic material, such as garbage or feces. They are pale white, 3-9 mm long, thinner at the mouth end, and have no legs. At the end of their third instar, the maggots crawl to a dry cool place and transform into pupae, colored reddish or brown and about 8 mm long. The adult flies then emerge from the pupae. The adults live from two weeks to a month. After having emerged from the pupae, the flies cease to grow; small flies are not young flies, but are indeed the result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage.

Houseflies can take in only liquid foods. They spit out saliva on solid foods to predigest it, and then suck it back in. They also regurgitate partly digested matter and pass it again to the abdomen.

These flies can walk on vertical planes, and can even hang upside-down from ceilings. This is accomplished with the surface tension of liquids secreted by glands near their feet.



Blowflies are about the same size as the housefly, and look very similar. They are usually metallic blue or green, and therefore they are also called bluebottle or greenbottle flies.

The eggs are laid on the material that serves as food for the larvae, e.g., decaying flesh and other organic matter. Blowflies are often carriers of disease, such as dysentery. The larvae of certain species of blowfly, raised under germ-free conditions and known as surgical, or medicinal, maggots, are used to consume dead and dying tissue and thus promote healing.


There are approximately 2,700 species of mosquito in the world; the three most significant genera are the Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex as these types of mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting various diseases that are hazardous to mankind.

Mosquitoes belong to the order Diptera, the True Flies. Like all True Flies, they have two wings, but unlike other flies, mosquito wings have scales. Female mosquitoes’ mouthparts form a long piercing-sucking proboscis. Males differ from females by having feathery antennae and mouthparts not suitable for piercing skin. A mosquito’s principal food is nectar or similar sugar source. All mosquitoes require water in which to breed.






  • The most dangerous types of mosquito, the Aedes is anthropophagic, that is, it feeds on the blood of humans.
  • Only the female mosquito bites.
  • It transmits among humans menacing diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever, and can also cause lymphatic filariasis, an illness that can trigger elephantiasis in certain cases.



Most species of Aedes can be found in the tropical and subtropical zones of the world. Recently, the genus has been discovered in more temperate regions, and its presence can now be anticipated on every continent except Antarctica.

The female Aedes mosquito lays its eggs on the surface of water; adulthood is reached within approximately six to seven days. The mature Aedes mosquito breeds, feeds, and dies within a week or two, which is the life cycle of most mosquitoes.



  • The Anopheles is different from other types of mosquitoes as it is the genus most accountable for spreading malaria to humans.
  • Malaria can be fatal; its typical symptoms include fever, headaches, chills, and general flu symptoms.
  • The species of Anopheles known as Gambiae is infamous for transmitting plasmodium falciparum, the most threatening form of malaria in the world.


The Anopheles mosquito is generally located near bodies of water, such as ponds, swamps, marches, ditches, and rain pools. The Anopheles female favors laying its eggs in fairly still water that is oxygenated, and where there is an abundance of wild plant life. Some species enjoy the shady areas, while others prefer sunlight.



  • The genus of mosquito known as the Culex can be considered the least dangerous of the three major types of mosquitoes due to the fact that humans are not their preferred blood meal.
  • Instead, most species of Culex are partial to biting birds rather than humans.
  • Despite this inclination, the Culex female mosquito is nevertheless recognized as spreading diseases such as the West Nile virus, malaria, filariasis, and encephalitis.



The Culex, like the Anopheles, tends to favor standing water to lay its eggs; however, unlike the Anopheles, it does not necessarily opt for plant and wild life surroundings. Instead, it often breeds in the outdoor objects on your property, such as barrels, cans, garden pots, used tires, as well as other places where stagnant water can collect.


Rats, mice and other rodents can become a nuisance when they come in close proximity to humans. In addition to spreading disease to both humans and household pets, rodents can also cause property damage and contaminate food sources.

Rats and mice not only contaminate food and spread diseases, but also gnaw through walls and electrical wiring, making them among the most destructive of all pests that can invade your business.

The three common rodents include:


(Rattus Norvegicus)


(Rattus Rattus)


(Mus Musculus)

NORWAY RAT (Rattus Norvegicus)


  • Common urban and rural rat found throughout U.S.
  • Largest of the commensal rats in the U.S. (105 to 600g)
  • Norway rats have smaller eyes and ears and shorter tails.
  • Norway rats are primarily nocturnal and often enter a home in the fall when outside food sources become scarce.
  • Food – prefers cereal and other grains, but omnivorous (will eat household, garbage)
  • Leaves odor trails of urine, feces and other secretions; leave hair, scales, dander, partially consumed food, and pheromone laden dust (allergenic)
  • These rats are known to gnaw through almost anything – including plastic or lead pipes – to obtain food or water.
  • Norway rats are social rodents and build burrows close to one another.



Outdoors, Norway rats live in fields, farmlands and in structures. These rats frequently burrow in soil near riverbanks, in garbage and woodpiles, and under concrete slabs. Indoors, Norway rats often nest in basements, piles of debris or undisturbed materials. Rodents can gain entry to a home through a hole the size of a quarter.



Norway rats are often drawn to piles of wood, so homeowners should keep firewood stored well away from the structure and remove debris piles to reduce nesting spots. For proper Norway rat control, seal any holes on the outside of the home with silicone caulk. Eliminate sources of moisture, especially in crawl spaces and basements, to get rid of Norway rats. It’s also important to occasionally inspect the home for signs of a Norway rat infestation, including rodent droppings, gnaw marks, damaged goods and greasy rub marks caused by their oily fur.

ROOF RAT (Rattus Rattus)


  • Called the roof rat, ship rat, or black rat
  • Occurs worldwide, abundant in ports and contiguous areas
  • Smaller, thin/streamlined appearance (80 to 350 g)
  • Highly arboreal (climber), burrows only infrequently
  • Food—prefers fruit, nuts, grains and invertebrates (e.g. snails and insects), but is omnivorous
  • Leaves odor trails of urine, feces and other secretions; leave hair, scales, dander, partially consumed food, and pheromone laden dust (allergenic)
  • Roof rats are primarily nocturnal. They forage for food in groups of up to ten and tend to return to the same food source time after time. These rats follow the same pathway between their nest and food.



Roof rats live in colonies and prefer to nest in the upper parts of buildings. They can also be found under, in and around structures.



To get rid of roof rats and prevent them from entering a home, seal up any holes or cracks larger than a quarter with silicone caulk. Keep trees and shrubs trimmed away from the building and cut back limbs overhanging the roof. Roof rats are drawn to any accessible food sources, so clean up fruit that may fall from trees in the yard and keep garbage in tightly covered receptacles. It’s also important to regularly inspect the home and property for signs of a roof rat infestation, including rodent droppings, gnaw marks, damaged goods and greasy rub marks from their oily fur.

HOUSE MOUSE (Mus Musculus)


  • More widely distributed worldwide than Norway and roof rats
  • Much smaller than either rat species (12 to 25 g)
  • Primarily nocturnal, but unpredictable
  • Occasionally burrows
  • Food—prefers cereal, grains, and seeds, but omnivorous
  • Leaves odor trails of urine, feces and other secretions; leave hair, scales, dander, partially consumed food, and pheromone laden dust (allergenic)
  • The house mouse is the most common rodent pest in most parts of the world. It can breed rapidly and adapt quickly to changing conditions. In fact, a female house mouse can give birth to a half dozen babies every three weeks, and can produce up to 35 young per year.
  • House mice prefer to eat seeds and insects, but will eat many kinds of food.
  • They are excellent climbers and can jump up to a foot high, however, they are color blind and cannot see clearly beyond six inches.



House mice live in structures, but they can survive outdoors, too. House mice prefer to nest in dark, secluded areas and often build nests out of paper products, cotton, packing materials, wall insulation and fabrics.



To keep mice and other rodents out, make sure all holes of larger diameter than a pencil are sealed. Keep areas clear and store boxes off of the floor because mice can hide in clutter. Don’t overlook proper drainage at the foundation and always install gutters or diverts which will channel water away from the building to prevent ideal conditions in which house mice can nest. Regularly inspect the home for signs of mice including droppings, gnaw marks and damaged food goods. If you suspect a rodent infestation, contact a licensed rodent pest control professional to treat and get rid of house mice.

Rat Tray

Stored Product Inserts – Beetles

Beetles are a group of insects that includes ground beetles, stag beetles, dung beetles, rove beetles, chafers, ladybirds, leaf beetles and weevils, form the group called Coleoptera.

Beetles can vary from very small to quite large insects. They can be identified by their hard forewings. These form a protective hard shell called a carapace, which meets neatly on the mid line of the body without overlapping. Most species are able to fly when required and are generally very mobile.

Beetles include families of predators that play a vital role in keeping down the numbers of other invertebrates. Other families are stored product pests or feed on wood or leaves and play an important role in decomposition.











The drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum), also known as the bread beetle or biscuit beetle, is a tiny, brown beetle that can be found infesting a wide variety of dried plant products, where it is among the most common non-weevils to be found.

Stored Product Inserts – Moths

Moths include macro moths and micro moths.

Moths, along with butterflies, form the group called Lepidoptera. They are mostly nocturnal and drab in colour, although there are several species that are more brightly coloured and some that fly during the day.

Moths usually rest with their wings flat against the surface they have landed on or with the wings held over the body like a tent. In most cases the antennae are simple, not feathered, and don.t end in a noticeable club. Their larvae are commonly known as caterpillars.


(Ephestia Elutella)


(Plodia Interpunctella)


(Cadra Cautella)

WAREHOUSE MOTH (Ephestia Elutella)


Warehouse Moth, Ephestia elutella is also known as Cocoa Moth and Tobacco Moth. This species infests cereal, fruit, shelled nuts, cocoa beans, fish, spices and tobacco. It is a common stored product insect in temperate and tropical regions. Ephestia elutella infestations are especially serious where wheat and flour are stored in bulk. Infestations contribute to the £300 million annual tobacco industry losses through pest infestation.






Subterranean termites are social insects. There are three types (castes) of termite adults in a colony; 1) reproductives; 2) workers; and 3) soldiers. Reproductives can be winged, primary reproductives called alates or swarmers or wingless, secondary reproductives.

Winged reproductives have 1/4 to 3/8 inch long pale yellow-brown to black bodies and bear four wings of equal size that may be smoky grey to brown and have few wing veins. Termite workers are white and soft bodied. Soldiers resemble worker termites, except that they have enlarged brownish heads and strong, well-developed jaws. Soldiers defend the colony from invaders, primarily ants



Drywood termites are light yellow to black with clear to smoky gray wings, about 7/16 inch long. Worker termites (nymphs), and are up to 3/8 inch long, wingless, white to grayish with white to yellowish-brown heads, and soldiers are similar but with large rectangular darker heads bearing well developed jaws (mandibles) used to defend the colony.

Since colonies are usually constructed inside wood, finding these termites can be difficult during routine pest inspections. Therefore, one of the best ways to identify an active infestation is the presence of fecal pellets.

Drywood termite fecal pellets are kicked out of the colony by workers and may accumulate below infestations.

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