Fumigation is recognised as an effective means of targeted control of Stored Product Insects (SPIs) such as beetles, weevils, mites and moths.
It can safeguard businesses such as shipping and cargo, manufacturing, warehousing, milling and agriculture.
Shipping and cargo fumigation treatments can control infestations of bulk consignments at sea, and in port. This ensures that shipments are transported safely and without risk of contamination.
ENFRESH’S Fumigation’s broad fumigation expertise comprises a wide spectrum of commodities, including cocoa beans, raw and finished tobacco, and bales of cotton.
Further, we fumigate bulk, containerized or palletized cargo, pallets and other wood packing material, silos, bins, warehouses, and residential and commercial structures.
We also provide on-site fumigation services for corporations that demand the highest standards of sanitation and safety compliance.
Enfresh is providing full range of fumigation treatment for:-
- Fumigation as per ISPM 15 standards.
- Empty container fumigation
- Cargo fumigation
- Agricultural products fumigation
- Ship holds fumigation
- Warehouse fumigation
- Timber treatment
- Mills fumigation
- Food processing machinery fumigation
- Marine disinfestations
- Prophylactic treatment for warehouses
- Rodent control
- General insects and pest control
- Termite control treatment
- Anti-Fungal treatment for pallets used in export packing
- Fumigation Treatment for wood packing materials
- Fumigation consultancy services
- Inspection of warehouses
- Hygienic and sanitation procedure of warehouses
- Audit of food processing units
- Air cargo fumigation
Why Fumigation is necessary?
Fumigation is a process where a fumigant which is a chemical at required temperature and pressure can exist in a gaseous state in sufficient concentration which will be lethal to given pest organism. This definition implies that a fumigant act as gas in the strictest sense of the word. (Munro 1961)
Transporting goods in ships and aircrafts between countries using containers is an economic and well established practice. Fumigation becomes necessary in order to keep away exotic pests and diseases entering into the country while permitting reasonably rapid clearance of containers. Timber insects pose a significant Quarantine risk in all countries and accordingly all wooden packing material used in the export packing should be fumigated. By carrying out fumigation at the port of loading clearance of the container at the discharge port can be done without any infestation problem.
How Infestation happens in Export cargo?
Fumigation of export cargo becomes very essential because there are possibilities of hidden infestation in the cargo. Infestation of cargo can happen due to following factors.
- High moisture level in the cargo
- The place where cargo has been stored prior to shipment
- During the time of transit Infestation may occur due to previous residues that would be present in cargo, container and ship holds that would affect the cargo significantly.
The infestation rapidly develops during the voyage period and when cargo reaches the port of discharge it is re-fumigated again at the cost of exporter or the buyer. It is always good to carry out fumigation prior to export to avoid huge fumigation expenditure and handling cost at the port of discharge.
As it is said “Prevention is better than cure”, it is necessary to follow good sanitation and scientific storage methods for maintaining the cargo in sound condition prior to export.
Fumigation operation is effective and a better option than any other methods of pest control because in fumigation process the fumigant circulates and spreads to all areas of infestation whereas spraying operation or other methods of pest control will be less effective.
Another important thing that needs attention is treatment of packing material since untreated packing materials are prone to infestation and become carriers for introducing new pests to other Countries. Therefore wooden packing material should be treated prior to export.
Fumigation is carried out mainly with two types of fumigants, methyl bromide & phosphine.
Non- quarantine fumigation is conducted in enclosed spaces such as warehouse with goods and commodities being stored. Fumigation is carried out to protect your production goods against the ravages of pests. Pests like grain beetles and rats can cause cross infestation when it travel from poor quality commodities to infest other stored goods.
Commodity fumigation is the treatment of a product by a gas, chemical or other process to eliminate the risk of a pest infestation.
A commodity can be described as anything from grain to personal effects imported or exported from one country or state to another.
The commodity can be by itself (loose or LCL – loose container load), in container (FCL – full container load), silo or ship.
Stored products pests are very sturdy and can adapt to almost any condition and location. Food products are attacked from the time they are in the field until they are consumed. The infestation can occur at any stage from packaging to transport to storage and shelving. Food pests can be found in all forms: egg, larvae, or pupal and adult form.
Stored product pests not only deteriorate the quality of food but more importantly in the case of heavy infestation can cause skin irritations such as Dermitis and both animals and humans may suffer intestinal disorders from eating infested foods.
Silo is used to store varied types of grains, feed or legumes as it is a low cost and maintenance free solution to the reduction of internal temperature and humidity levels. It has Air intake vents, installed near the base of silos and is configured to enhance the passive airflow across the stored commodity for improving aeration. This AIV also works as the sealed chamber for the chemical treatment at ground level to ensure safety of the stored commodities in silos.
To ensure the insects and pest free silo, silo fumigation is an effective, simple and cost effective pest control treatment, wherein phoshine is used as a fumigant because of its matchless aspect of controlling insects without moving the grain. This phoshpine gas moves rapidly through grain from the entry and ventilate through holes in silos. It hardly takes three or four days from the day of the silo fumigation process applied. It is recommended to keep phosphine inside the silo for minimum 7 days to eradicate every stage of the insects and pests from grains. For the effectiveness of the silo fumigation, silo built to be sealed gas tight is required to contain sufficient phoshphine concentration for a long period of time, which can be achieved by detailed calculation and monitoring prior to apply the fumigant.
The transport of goods requiring specialised treatments have changed over the years, from bulk shipments to containerised cargo either by sea or air freight.
Quarantine fumigation have numerous forms of treatments available to accommodate the requirements for agencies involved in this highly specialised field.
Pest infestation is not uncommon on-board vessels and ships, it is essential to take charge of the situation to eliminate pests especially rats, as part of legal requirements. Prior conducting vessel fumigation, it is necessary to vacate risk areas and ensure that effort has been made to seal all openings to prevent the fumigant (Methyl Bromide) used from escaping.
Re-entry into the fumigation area is only allowed when it has been declared safe and free of gas by the fumigators-in-charge. This is after tests are carried out to confirm the gas concentration level is below OES (Occupational Exposure Standard).
Container fumigation is the treatment of a commodity or the container itself to eliminate the risk of pests or disease from entering or leaving the country or state.
Containers can be fumigated at different times in the transport chain. If done offshore before shipment, the container will usually be aerated or ventilated before loading on a ship. Under international maritime rules containers under fumigation are only permitted on a ship at the discretion of the master, who will usually require them to be aerated or ventilated. Even if these containers are aerated before shipping, some residue of fumigant is likely to remain because of the slow release of gas absorbed into the cargo. Documentation about fumigation of a container such as treatment certificates, customs declaration or warning labels may not be a reliable indication that fumigation has been carried out. Therefore anybody required to open a container must do so with great care and take appropriate precautions to prevent exposure to possible toxic gases.
ISPM15 stands for the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measure #15 which refers to the treatment of wood packaging or pallets to an international requirement. Currently there are two approved treatment options under the standards:
- fumigation with methyl bromide;
- heat treatment.
ISPM15 treatments can only be conducted by businesses that have signed up to the system and are audited to their standards. On completion of an approved ISPM15 treatment the treatment provider applies a certified stamp to the wood packaging or pallets which is internationally recognised.